Over pass two weeks, I learned all about fermentation. Fermentation is a process that yeast mix with sugars and starches produce carbon dioxide and alcohol. Fermentation is all about leavening, such as beer, wine and yogurt. Sugar and starches convert into co2 which is the air pocket inside the dough. The three main factors contribute to the rate of fermentation are time, temperature (room temperature, water temperature, flour temperature and friction temperature) and yeast quantity. Beside, salt can affect the rate of fermentation as well. We learned different methods to make bread, such as straight dough method, modified dough method and sponge method. I realized that modified dough method is really similar to creaming method. Both of them need to mix sugar and butter first. Sourdough are made from wild yeast, it is so funny to feed the yeast every day, because wild yeast need food every day. Wild yeast provides bread flavor and texture. Steam has ability to make hard crust, like French bread and Rye, both them need to be steam to form a crispy crust. What’s more, there is no glutenin in the rye, so it needs to mix with bread flour to develop gluten. Last Friday I encountered two special scenarios. When I was making hot cross bun, I found the dough was pretty sticky and hard to mould. I was wondering if I made a mistake. After then, I made sure that I was right because that was rich dough which is high in sugar and fat. That is the reason why the dough was sticky. For example, Sweet Bun Dough and Gugelhopf are rich dough. On the contrary, lean dough is easy to round because it is low in sugar and fat, such as French bread and Rye. Furthermore, the dough of French bread I made that was little too liquid so that the shape was not nice and flat. I was so surprise that Nancy made my French bread alive eventually. She set a high oven temperature and steamed it so the French bread became nicer! I learned a lot. To sum up, fermentation is a process that takes time and need patience. We learn from mistake.